Product of the System

Let me remember what was written on my checklist
It’s nothing new
I tried to persist, resists and coexist everyday all in the same wish
Swore I wrote it down on my wrist
Even on my better days, mornings felt restless
On the best nights, the gravitated light
Even those times I could not forget it
Like a ocean swallow all I regretted
Hollow in the black of the abyss that settled in mist
Cards all cold, and I already betted
But nevertheless, we gotta go head first isn’t it?
Isn’t that what we were told from the start and set
To hold our head high like we light headed
To hold our breath tight we might have our chests torn open
White in our eyes like a wedding
Hands in our pocket, mouths locked, minding our own business, in a mental fit, parts of us falling apart, when the truth is already embedded
It’s not that i didn’t speak out, it was that I wasn’t heard despite already having said it
Maybe I didn’t speak too loud, maybe I needed to be better at the way I pronounce
Yet still I pretend it’ll make a difference
Like each of these imprisionments are only dependent on my sentences, deciding these sentence terms, are still given to better men
Trapped behind bars, I’m a victim of my words
But when I get out, I’ll move to the suburbs
Get married, big house, maybe a no longer need to park on the curb
Go home having worked and earned whatever I’m worth
No longer needing insecurity to feed my ambition
No longer needing to rely on my stitches
To keep me together, past the veins on my wrists, that’s all I’m wishing
I remember watching actors act about dreams in the pictures
But even that’s just memories now that we’ve grown up different
I’m not going to choose to remember the past or hold close the present
I’ll wake up another day, living asleep as a product of the system

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Lovely Temperature

I’m going to speak truthfully
Because it’s in truth I believe
Honesty, loyalty, Gucci and jewellery
I care the most about things that matter the least
Wake up to the mirror, look back at pictures of me
All of these places, calling my name
These postcards from space, like a long lost longing pain
Gone like a scar, still leaves its stain
But I’m still there in my head, like a record cracked, saying the same
It’s only a second, with time melted black
I wrote down the sentences only to have the meaning held back
I was a runner in circles and then I lost track
Took me apart yet left me intact
They told me move on but I’m living in the past
Can’t take the perspective, wasn’t any impact
My hands are coarse and scarred and I wonder some days gone by
But I wonder the in-betweens and I wonder the whys
Missionary in a land of incomplete
My religion is death, my heart is steel, and the ground below my feet a land of disbelief
How cold have you been
Leaving me here in pieces with all these priests
You could spell the ways they said your name
Called these pertinent to its final plain
Rosary on the cemented ground
Read the cress on the paper, beating the bless out the nouns
Watching the sand flood from the grain
I am the road that can never change
Takes you the same
Place you need to go
Hoping wishing praying
I’ll be leaving soon but for now I’m staying
I’m leaving now, nah, I’m staying
Need to leave me now, I’ve gone insane
Threads through these clothes like Richard James
Dressed up like you someone famous
You’ve heard of me, no need for names as such
Surprised they can even walk aligned
With the weight of ego resting on their minds
Sold their souls to the devil long ago, the ink’s even dried
I sold my soul to want and a need I couldn’t forgo, till I awoke and found it was all a lie
I slept into a nightmare and woke up baptised
Like the lord looking down on me, but I’m too small to see with her eyes
Maybe if she squints, she can barley make me out but she doesn’t have the time
But that’s all I got so I’ll keep trying
Make this water to whiskey and then wine
Drink it halfway through and can’t even walk a straight line
Now look who’s talking, look who’s about to sign
Dot my i’s and cross my t’s and hope to die
Lost my way, dug my grave, don’t ask me why
Standing arms out wide like I’m about to be crucified
Standing, hands down, there’s the truth for you, truthfully, magnified.

Strong at the Broken Places

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I’m a child on a lifeboat lost at sea
Unsure where I want to go, who I want to be
Counting the waves like one two three
Counting the seconds like one two three

Counting the lies they want me to believe
The truths they concede,
Everything they conceal, only to plant their seeds
Cut the stems and flourish the weeds
How many branches are in the way, maybe one two three

Eventually I’ll cut the trees, but believe me, there’s only the tough barks
Lathers in degrees, stark like the night and black as blood in the moonlight
I can barley see, past the sun, the rays like striking thunder on my skin
Thirst on my tongue, body and mind numb, as my eyes get dim

I can feel the water rising, flooding my feet, soothing and rocking like a long sleep
Until the reflections clear and the motion complete
Heavy all over me, settling in my soul, dense like concrete

Shapes in the sky, clouds like little white pyres
Loud and lonely, hours like melancholy choirs
Over the ocean, like a train through exposed wires
I’m the only one, the only one for which the stations tired

My arms are open wide, rowing to shore
My eyes closed shut as rain begins to pour
heart beating out of my soul through my core,
Counting the minutes now like what’s the score

How much longer, how much more can I really endure
I don’t need to worry, I’ll be home soon I’m sure
With my arms around myself, I bare to fold
To remember my mother’s embrace In this empty cold
.
I lie down on the boards with my head between my knees
Any second now, someone something will come set me free
Passing the time with another fairytale with no guarantee
Passing the time with another make believe, another false belief
Passing the time with what I want, drowning from what I need
Passing the time with one……two……three….

Movember Proves A Success Once Again.

The annual Movember has passed once more. Movember is a month in which men grow a moustache and women support them along the way in their cause. Started in 2003 by the Movember Foundation, the month is used to raise awareness and funds for men’s health particularly about prostate cancer, testicular cancer, mental health and physical inactivity. The campaign uses the moustache to symbolise manliness. It highlights the concern men should have of their health and how gender can be a way to avert these issues. The moustache symbolises the need to be aware of one’s health. Or as they say ‘real men facing real issues’.

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Now on its twelfth year, The campaign pans out to Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hong Kong, Germany, Norway, Singapore, South Africa, UK, USA and many other countries. It began however in a pub as an idea between two friends which stretched to involve thirty friends and now five million ‘MoBrothers’ and ‘MoSisters’. The Movember Foundation has raised 402 million pounds since their humble beginnings. There were various events supporting them such as MoRunning, Mo Parties and the Movember Awards.

A MoRun took place in Manchester with Mancunians running 5K and 10K around Heaton Park in support of the cause. The run took place on November 22nd with Participants wearing MoRun T-Shirts, MoRun Headbands, Legend and Superhero medals for fancy dressers, goodies and even Yellow Winner Jerseys for 1st finishers, Champion Medals and free entry to 2016.  The University of Manchester encouraged students and staff to register for the event. They donated 1500 pounds last year to the cause. Central Manchester University Hospitals are also raised awareness of men’s health through Movember. Their famous logo was also seen on everywhere from transport to buildings.

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They have funded 832 men’s health projects worldwide. They have also been ranked 72nd out of the top non-governmental organisations in the world. They support Prostate Cancer UK, donating 21 million over the last three years to them. Prostate Cancer UK offers service such as information, helpline, one-to-one support, and regional services to anyone who needs it. They highlight issues detrimental to the men community. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the UK, with testicular cancer being the most common between men ages 25 to 49 worldwide. By reports of the World Health Organisation, 13 men in the UK each day die by their own hands, which is over half a million yearly all around the world. 41% of men in high-income countries don’t get the needed exercise. However sadly, UK income of the Movember Foundation fell by a quarter last year, which is exactly why it is so important to be part of the cause this year and the next.

Donate to their cause here.

With examples, discuss the impact and influence of social media on journalistic practice.

The introduction of the internet, applications, online communities and networks has created a new form of interaction and exchanging information known as social media. This has changed virtually all methods of obtaining and sharing knowledge. It has had a profound impact on the way we practice journalism. Virtual societies have fundamentally altered the way we communicate. The meaning of Journalism has changed. Journalism was a style that aims to provide a service to the public through dissection of the news. Now, how it is practiced, and by whom, has reformed the entire sphere of reporting.

A new dimension has been added to journalism. Modern day journalism has been stuffed with layers of information for audiences and journalists. Social media means journalists have to approach the news through newsgathering by researching networks, sites and by crowdsourcing.  The speed in which information is demanded has rapidly increased. The modern audience has access to a wide range of voices. Journalists are able to collect more material and obtain access to people who can share their own opinions. For example, when in 2007, Barack Obama was an unknown senator running for president against a household name, Hilary Clinton; his victory came as his campaign used social media and technology as an integral part of its strategy.

There are many uses for social media. Journalists can monitor social media noting the trending changes in news and stories. Social newswire Storyful is a tool used for monitoring trends on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other networks with keywords which may relate to an event. Social media now gets the first word on news. However, journalists utilize it for an investigative approach. The information is raw. Premature ruins of a potentially important event. Journalism allows the cultivation of that information. The duty of the common journalist is to assure the truthfulness of that information. Journalists compile various sources to create an analytical study. Eliot Higgins, known for his blog on munitions used in the Syrian civil war, has built a respectable collection of sources from social media. He uses social media to find and analyze stories of the conflict. Closed social networks and geo-locating social media are also helpful to journalists. It all permits use for gaining relevant information and building stronger news stories.

The influence is simple. Journalists can use it for practical reasons. They can maintain a work related blog and connect with other people in their field and audiences can become part of the story. Journalists can reply to people and interact with them. They can see trending topics, rising issues, and controversial matters which they otherwise could not find. Journalists have access to blogs, microblogs, content communities, professional networking sites, sharing sites, and social reader sites to publish, source, network, monitor, and verify facts and ideas. For example, the Trayvon Martin killing in Florida. It took social media for news organizations to pay attention to this racially-charged incident of a neighborhood watch volunteer shooting an unarmed black teenager. The story picked up after a petition was signed on Change.org that gathered 1.75 million signatures asking for the prosecution of Martin’s killer, George Zimmerman, who had not been arrested at the time. Engagement has become a huge part of Journalism.

Journalists have now been divided into groups in their relation to social media. Different people use it for various reasons. Often the content is merely observed. Others chose to create content using social media. There are also promoters, who use it to advocate for their own work and hunters, who use it to find contacts. Many people are also skeptical about the radical change. They remain negative about it. 20% of journalists believe that that social media will lead to the death of professional journalism.

Obviously, this presents social media’s negatives to journalism. Traditional values are thought to be dying out. People have been going online to social networks such as Reddit or Facebook instead of old-fashioned organizations for news. The decline of print media is a huge shift in journalism. Media outlets are forced to adapt to changing trends or face extinction.

The commonness of mobile phones and cameras is making producing and sharing news easier. Audiences can engage with each other contributing views even without the use of journalists. Through this, technology is making journalists redundant. Online news is not competing in terms of quality. John Kelly, a columnist for the Washington Post says “today the Huffington Post competes with the Washington Post not in terms of journalism, but in terms of its readers.”

Furthermore, social media has proved to be hotheaded. People become easily influenced by tweets and Facebook which is dangerous for inaccurate posts. Twitter has no filter. The speed does not allow space for accuracy. However, with the rapidity of social media, inaccurate reports are debunked sometimes with the same speed.

Social media can be misused. According to a survey, 70% of Journalists have been harassed about their work or the outlet for which they work. Some 27% had been threatened, with 12% being sexually harassed.

Also, unchecked facts can lead to wrong people being accused of crimes due to a decentralized information sharing system. As suspects emerge, many users can pry into the private lives of suspects. This can lead to harassment of individuals and their families. This happened during the Boston Bombing, the Aurora, Colorado Theater shooting, and the family of James Holmes. It is an example of mob mentality in social media.

Moreover, social media lacks objectivity. The separation in journalism and social media is the subjectivity. We should be able to trust journalism. With social media, trust has become more important. Social media has made journalism a form of delivery, a method of presentation. Social media provides information however that is not news. Richard Sambrook, director of the BBC Global News Division remarks “You get a lot of things, when you open up Twitter, but not journalism. Journalism needs discipline, analysis, explanation and context. And that makes the difference.”

Nevertheless, social platforms have provided a vast range of topics for audiences. Variety has reformed the structure of mundane news. Often some sites are more reliable for news than others in social media. However, audiences differ in each platform, altering the impact of news on each outlet. Twitter news consumers are significantly younger than news consumers on Facebook and Google Plus. Facebook news consumers are more likely to be female than news consumers on YouTube and Twitter. Similarly, when opinions arise after a news event, they can change in time, thus adding further inaccuracy.  For example, on Twitter, a poll was taken on same-sex marriage. For those two weeks, 55% were opposed. But, afterwards for four weeks, statements in support outnumbered those in opposition.

Users can document the news as it happens, creating a new subsection of journalists known as citizen journalists. In the violent protests, following the Iranian elections of 2009 and the Mumbai attacks in 2008 has led many to believe that witnesses are taking over the news. The Asian Tsunami and the London bombings have also been examples of the journalistic power of ordinary people. Today, the first haunting images of Syria’s civil war or the meteorite strike in Siberia in 2013 – often come from common citizens. These are all excellent examples of how powerful new internet tools like YouTube, Facebook and Twitter are.

Social media is a complicated structure. Despite this, journalists seem to favor the positives and are incorporating social media in its role in Journalism. 96% use social media for their work daily. However, strictly on their own terms. The same values remain, however the tools have been changed. They have made it part of their culture. New rules are made, guidelines rewritten. Training is given to staff. Correspondents are being appointed.  In one week, BBC processes over 10,000 email comments, 1,000 stills and 100 video clips. The greatest advantage remains the ability to interact with audiences. Information can move quickly among large groups of people.

There is greater pressure than ever on editors over what to report and when. Breaking news is no longer at the hands of News organizations. Validating it is. The journalist is now a gatekeeper.  The most important source of news validation is from Industry Insiders. Expert spokespeople are now the first place journalists go to in order to get their news. The news cycle has been renovated. A historical shift of control between the reader and the journalist has arrived. But what are the effects in the long term? How will the inevitable growth of social media impact Journalism?

Traditional values still remain. News organizations no longer need to just report the news but bring new angles. In conclusion, it all relies on flexibility. The perseverance of journalism is based on adaptability.  A few years ago, discussions raged about whether you could trust new media, and whether it would destroy old journalism,” says Charlie Beckett, a former Journalist, ‘I think we’ve realized that it is inevitable and it is not a choice.

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References

Wikipedia. (2014). Journalism. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journalism. Last accessed 18th April 2014

Wikipedia. (2014). Social Media. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media. Last accessed 18th April 2014.

Greenslade, Roy. (2014). Survey reveals that journalists are suffering abuse on social media. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2014/mar/04/journalism-education-twitter. Last accessed 18th April 2014.

Bartlett, Rachel. (2013). Study: 96% of UK journalists use social media every day. Available: http://www.journalism.co.uk/news/study-96-of-uk-journalists-use-social-media-each-day/s2/a554687/. Last accessed 18th April 2014.

DeMers, Jayson. (2013). How Social Media Is Supporting a Fundamental Shift in Journalism. Available: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jayson-demers/how-social-media-is-suppo_b_3239076.html. Last accessed 18th April 2014.

Reid, Alastair. (2014). 4 new ways to use social media for newsgathering. Available: http://www.journalism.co.uk/news/four-new-ways-to-use-social-media-for-newsgathering/s2/a556164/. Last accessed 18th April 2014

Kamila. (2013). The impact of social media on modern journalism: Does your PR recognize it?. Available: http://evoquepr.com/2013/09/the-impact-of-social-media-on-modern-journalism-does-your-pr-recognise-it/. Last accessed 19th April 2014.

Aaker, Jennifer and Chang, Victoria. (2009). Obama and the power of social media and technology. Available: http://www.europeanbusinessreview.com/?p=1627. Last accessed 20th April 2014.

Mercedes Bunz. (2009). How social networking is changing journalism. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/media/pda/2009/sep/18/oxford-social-media-convention-2009-journalism-blogs. Last accessed 20th April 2014.

Neslin, Lenny. (2012). Experts Weigh In on Social Media’s Impact on Journalism. Available: http://socialmediatoday.com/lsneslin/692446/experts-weigh-social-media-s-impact-journalism. Last accessed 20th April 2014.

Outing, Steve. (2012). Journalism’s impact: Is it becoming less than that of social media?. Available: http://mediadisruptus.com/2012/03/24/journalism-impact-and-social-media/. Last accessed 20th April 2014.

Piombino, Kristin. (2013). Study: How journalists use social media. Available: http://www.prdaily.com/Main/Articles/Study_How_journalists_use_social_media_15819.aspx#. Last accessed 20th April 2014.

Eva Matsa, Katerina and Mitchell, Amy. (2014). 8 Key Takeaways about Social Media and News. Available: http://www.journalism.org/2014/03/26/8-key-takeaways-about-social-media-and-news/. Last accessed 21th April 2014.

Newman, Nick. (2009). The rise of social media and its impact on mainstream journalism. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. 1 (1), p10-50.

Oriella Digital. (2013). The New Normal for News. Oriella PR Network Global Digital Journalism study 2013. 1 (1), p2-12.

Critically assess the view that there is a decline in investigative journalism in Britain

Investigative Journalism has undergone many shifts since its conception. These changes can be attributed to a number of reasons involving technology, social statuses, political atmospheres and game-changing events. This has created a diverse number of opinions by scholars, critics and journalists on its status and history. Some consider it to be at its prime while other claim it is a dying art. This essay will seek to define investigative journalism and critically examine the changes it has undergone, the reasons behind that and the history and future of investigative journalism.

Investigative Journalism has always been here in organized societies in one way or another. Since then, it has evolved in its approach, delegation, and construction. It has also devolved a rough definition. Mark Lee Hunter defines investigative journalism by differentiating it from ‘conventional’ journalism. He states “Investigative journalism involves exposing to the public matters that are concealed – either deliberately by someone in a position of power, or accidentally, behind a chaotic mass of facts and circumstances that obscure understanding” (Hunter, 2011).  Campaigning journalism and exposing corporations began in the nineteenth century.  At the time, a young generation of reporters adopted the revelation methods of the common press but tended to relate the misery and dishonesty of individuals to wider social backgrounds and attack institutional corporations (Doig, 1992).

Modern Journalism is considered to have peaked by the Watergate Scandal by Woodward and Bernstein in the United States. They even emphasised the importance of investigative Journalism in society. In the UK, a similar movement was starting. There were several notable investigations which made headlines such as The Sunday Time’s exposition of the Thalidomide scandal where the paper overcame the legalities involving the drug which was causing serious birth defects in children while mothers used it for sickness in pregnancy. In the 1970s, UK television transformed investigative journalism into a product where high profile investigative programmes like Panaorama, World in Action and This Week took on the Vietnam War, torture, industrial influences, child labour, justice, corruption, and scandals. Soon after, television was considered a threat due to the tabloidization of investigative journalism, Donal MacIntyre, a television investigative Journalist, remembers the period stating “The death of investigative journalism was predicated with the creation of commercial television in 1954. All through the 1990’s I heard it. As budgets got tighter and the information world changed at lightening pace, the same arguments that gained currency in 1954 have now become an accepted truth” (Mair and Keeble 2011, 2). Print and television became tabloid exploitations which were formulaic deviations from investigative journalism. The tabloids revolved around “kiss and tell” and celebrity stories. Eventually, they infected the middle market. Concern rose about traditional media not having the need or ability in resources to create strong investigative journalism. (Anderson, Williams and Ogola, 2013).  The Campaign for Quality Television group stated that according to a study, a ratings oriented environment in TV favours an emotive approach to current affairs as opposed to analytical and investigative programmes. This created adverse pressure on programme budgets, reducing authentic investigative journalism (Barnett and Seymour, 1999). A Pew study indicates that 15,000 journalists lost their jobs in the US in 2008, with reductions of more than 20% at large newspapers (Ackerman and Ayers, 2009)

There are a vast number of views about the state of investigative Journalism through time. Gavin MacFayden, director of the centre for investigative Journalism said, “it should be said that in the last 20 years investigative reporting as I am sure everybody here knows has been in major decline in Britain from what it was – major television programmes like World in Action, This Week and Panorama to where we are now; we have nothing really, that is comparable with the depth and frequency that those programmes were” (House of Lord’s, 2012, 21). Professor Hugo De Burgh recognizes the mid 1990s. He states “a systematic trawl of a database for 1995 suggests that there were 300 discrete investigative programmes that could be classified as investigative (De Burgh, 2008, 6) He argues that pessimism of the future of investigative journalism is exaggerated and that “new types of outlet are devolving and information more available and verifiable.  Deborah Chambers wrote that investigative journalism in the UK has thrived in the last three decades of the twentieth century (Chamber, 2001). Dorril has retorted that investigative journalism has enjoyed a brief bloom in the sixties, flowered shortly in the seventies, wilted in the eighties and is now dead (Dorril, 2000). Mark Hanna however considers it not dead but clearly in decline, blaming structural changes within the media since the 1970s for shrivelling investigative journalism; changes such as cost-cutting, under-staffing, speeding-up and on television a ruthless drive for ratings (Hanna, 2000, 6-7).

The value of Journalism’s social role has alternated.  According to McNair (2002; 9) it is an ’account of the existing real world as appropriated by the journalist and processed in accordance with the particular requirements of the journalistic medium through which it will be disseminated to some section of the public’. The idea of a social role for Journalism to understand the world around them has mutated. Investigative journalism still matters because of its many contributions to democratic governance. It is considered the pure manifestation of the fourth estate role of the news media According to this model; the press should make government answerable by publishing information about matters in public interest even if such information is fought against by authority figures. Investigative journalism is one of the most important contributions that the press makes to democracy. It balances democratic systems providing an instrument for monitoring governmental bodies, organizations and corporations.  In a poll conducted, just 12% of respondents believe investigative journalism is having a negative impact on the UK’s democracy while over half think it has a positive impact (Ryan, Tom, 2013).

The industry has changed, becoming business oriented. This has lead to cost cutting by major news corporations to facilitate massive profits thus many reporters who aspire to investigations can rarely free themselves from mundane tasks. A more competitive market has also affected the gathering operations of national newspapers (Tunstall, 1996). Furthermore, journalists now and then care deeply about protecting the identity of sources. This has become difficult to do now. A journalist does not have the liberty of a private conversation with a source. In our digital world, journalists’ interview sources from far away. Similar to every generation of journalists, todays are emerging with unripe work using methods based on repetitive and failed journalism. It is vastly difficult to protect whistleblowers in a new era of investigative journalism. Gavin MacFadyen, Director of the Centre for Investigative Journalism, states “Whistleblowers in the UK suffer career-threatening and life-changing consequences as a result of disclosure.” The current state of legislation is insufficient to support the realities of whistle blowing. The support needed to many who wish to disclose important information about corporations, industries and powerful individuals is unavailable. Whistleblowers are an essential part of the investigative journalistic process. Without adequate support, misuse of authority (from expenses of officials to war secrets), threatens to limit our freedom (MacFayden, 2009)

Further constraints start with public relations, laws, finance, and the structure of media firms. One of Britain’s most experienced investigative journalists, Paul Lashmar, estimates that the number of serious operators in investigative journalism has fallen from 150 during the Eighties to fewer than 90 today. “It’s harder and harder to get money to do stuff,” he says. “A lot of the best investigative journalists are working for tabloids” (Burrell, 2010). Robert Rosenthal, the executive director of the Centre for Investigative Reporting, considers newsrooms different now, some even non-existent. He explained: “What that means is that on every level there is less information, less government being covered, from the community to the state to the region. And part of what is happening is the investigative reporting is something that is being shoved aside in newsrooms that really have to feed the beast. Investigative journalism takes more time and more experienced journalists to produce, and it often involves legal battles. While still at newspapers or TV stations in the 1990s, they had already integrated social science methods and data analysis into traditional methods of on-site observation, face-to-face interviews, and Freedom of Information requests” (PBS, 2009)

However, an editor from The Hartford Courant in Connecticut in the early 1990s came up with the theory that if one journalist went on a diet, another one gained weight. But no matter the losses and gains, he said, the overall mass of a newsroom is consistent. A similar theory might be applied to investigative journalism today. While investigative reporting has drastically weakened in traditional and mainstream newsrooms, it has rapidly expanded into different forms on the internet and at universities around the world (Houston, 2010).  Nevertheless, campaigning sector – pressure groups, consumer groups, charities and other non-governmental organisations are doing independent investigative journalism.  An example is the work of Wikileaks. It proves that investigative skills and methods are being found outside traditional newsrooms.  A number of pressure groups, social justice campaigners, consumer advocates and charities do investigations and analysis on local, regional and international concern. Organisations in this sector have become catalysts in bringing political and economic pressure on governments and companies.

There have been many scandals and triumphs of Journalism in recent history. One notable example was Stephen Grey, the editor of the Bureau of investigative journalism’s tweet in 2010. He tweeted that a senior member of the British conservative party was a paedophile. This was followed by a terrible error of judgment within the BBC over a Newsnight programme on child abuse thus leaving the bureau in a critical condition. This was deemed as a public relations disaster. Incidents such as this portrayed the risks of unconfirmed news in a modern society for investigative Journalism. The most impactful example which affected investigative Journalism was the high profile incident of the phone hacking scandal and various wrong doings by News of the World. Criticisms rose about Journalism with it being deemed as “yellow press” and “gutter press”. This was a significantly negative image portrayed of investigative Journalism. It led to the Leveson inquiry and trials. Not only were the standards of modern journalism in question, but the ethics and morality of journalists. This was a blemish on journalism that led to increasing concern of its decline.

There have also been positive events in Journalism which have reassured critics. Many people state that if it were not for real investigative journalists, the wrongdoings of News of the World may have not even been found out. Also, Mazher Mahmood, News of the World’s fake sheikh, was at one point considered Britain’s most prominent investigative reporter being the man behind the recent exposé of the Pakistani cricket-fixing scandal. Even if the tabloid’s successes have been marred by concerns over the methods some of its journalists may have used to obtain information. An incident that contributed positively to this was in late 2010, when Wikileaks and five major newspapers from Spain, France, Germany, the UK and the US simultaneously published the first of 251 leaked confidential but not top secret diplomatic cables from 274 US embassies around the world dated from 1966 to 2010. This was considered a rare event and an enormous boost to investigative journalism.

Moreover, there are news sources which the public still trust. The BBC, the Guardian and the Telegraph are the best sources for investigative journalism in the UK according to a poll of the British public (Hanggerty, 2013) Investigative Journalism units are often funded by donations and subscriptions alone reassuring the public’s trust in certain outlets. In the United States there are a number of successful institutions such as proPublica, and Exaro, a UK based philanthropic funded outfit. Also, a new generation of citizen journalists have emerged contributing to investigative journalism. There is a rise of international and informal networks of investigative journalists. These groupings are providing under-resourced investigative journalists with longer arms as they are now able to call upon colleagues for help and advice. This is an important development given that the investigative journalists’ subjects are often adequately resourced and operate universally. Journalists are then able to share these stories.  The Reuters Institute published a detailed analysis of the impact of the digital revolution on the economics of new publishing in the UK in 2008.  The report states in the UK and everywhere else, news outlets are constructing digitally manufactured machines to feed content to an array of media platforms. “Under pressure to exploit content across multiple platforms many publishers are morphing into a form that favours the processing rather than the generation of content” (Currah, 2009). Social media has also been a useful tool in the Journalists tool box. Paul Lewis of The Guardian has written about its use recording events leading to the death of the news vendor Ian Tomlinson during the anti G20 protests and the death of Jimmy Mubenga, a deportee from UK who died after being forcibly restrained on an aircraft. He makes the point that in the pre-internet age, journalists mostly sought sources now with social media; sources can seek our journalists (Lewis, 2012).

A massive quantity of information such as statistics is available online by public organizations as part of the UK government’s open data agenda.  Bradshaw argues that the internet has made it possible to separate the investigative from the journalism; students, bloggers activists and anyone else with a curious enough can investigate it. “They can raise questions openly with thousands of users online; submit freedom of information requests or analyse datasets and documents with free tools regardless of whether or not they are employed as a journalists” the vast majority do not want to be a journalist. What they want are answers” (Mair and Keeble, 2011, 257). Caire Sambrook states “There are lots of very good online publications and then also online we can prompt the work through that we for example so if you get a rally astonishing piece like we had a piece on the Brevik massacre and it just went around the world.it would have been extraordinarily difficult for him as somebody unknown to a national newspaper to get that kind of space. So there are all starts of benefits to online publication and online research, massive benefits” (House of Lord’s, 2012, 58).

The major problem to the structure of modern journalism is the lack of organisational support in a modern digital age. Investigative Journalism may have shifted in its industrial and business like manner, as well as news outlets, coverage, and value; however this can all be managed with the amount of resources and technology available to the investigative Journalist. Investigative Journalist may be considered to have declined while it has only changed its form. The ability of investigative Journalism’s perseverance is judged through its consistent survival. It has evolved to a new stage now yet constantly in change but not in decline. In conclusion, the role of investigative journalism will always be relevant. “Investigative journalism has helped bring down governments, imprison politicians, trigger legislation, reveal miscarriages of justice and shame corporate lions. Even today, when much of the media colludes with power and when viciousness and sensationalism are staples of formerly big minded media, investigative journalists can stand up for the powerless, the exploited, the truth (De Burgh, 2008)

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